Constantinos M. Kokkinos, Κυβερνο-εκφοβισμός και κυβερνο-θυματοποίηση σε παιδιά και εφήβους: Συχνότητα εμφάνισης και παράγοντες επικινδυνότητας, Προσχολική & Σχολική Εκπαίδευση, 1|2013, 138-169

Cyber-bullying (CB) is a form of aggressive behavior, performed with the use of Information and Communication Technologies (ICT). The purpose of this study is to examine how the individual characteristics of pre-adolescent and adolescent students affect their participation in CB and Cyber-victimization (CV) incidences. Furthermore, the study aimed at studying the phenomenon in three different age-groups in order to investigate whether participation in CB/V incidences is related to the same individual characteristics in all three age-groups, and consequently if it can be subjected to the same prevention and intervention strategies. Overall, 429 students took part in the study, representing three age groups. Thus, 126 students were upper elementary pupils (10-11 years old), 146 lower secondary (12-15 years old) and 157 were upper secondary pupils (16-18 years old). In terms of gender, 220 were boys and 203 girls. Students completed a self-report questionnaire, measuring CB/V experiences, as well as a number of scales measuring internet disinhibition, sensation seeking, psychopathic traits, cognitive and affective empathy, social skills (i.e. cooperation, assertiveness, self-control and responsibility), self-esteem and peer relations. Several items were also included for the assessment of internet use (i.e. frequency, online activities and skills, dangerous use). Results indicated that boys and lower high school students participated more frequently in CB and CV incidences, especially with the dual participant role of the bully-victim. All participants reported more frequent and more dangerous internet use, than non- participants while they scored higher on the internet disinhibition scale. Bully-victims, had significantly higher scores in internet disinhibition, and in psychopathic traits, while they had significantly lower scores in emotional empathy and social skills. CB and CV had a significant positive correlation with internet use, internet disinhibition, psychopathic traits and also a significant negative correlation with emotional empathy. Moreover, CB had a significant negative correlation with cognitive empathy. Regression analyses were performed in order to investigate the best predictors for CB and CV participation respectively. Results indicated that CV was predicted by internet disinhibition in the case of elementary school students, by cognitive empathy in the case of lower high school students and by internet disinhibition and grandiose-manipulative traits in the case of upper high school students, after controlling for CB. Regarding CB, it was predicted by grandiose-manipulative traits in elementary students, internet disihibition, cognitive empathy and grandiose-manipulative traits in lower high school and dangerous ICT use, internet disinhibition and internet use for peer participation online activities in upper high school students, after controlling for CV. Findings are discussed in terms of prevention and intervention strategies regarding CB/V; specifically, the role of internet disinhibition, safe internet use and personal characteristics of the participants (i.e. personality, empathy and social skills) in the manifestation of CB/V incidences are discussed, as well as practices for their prevention for all those involved.

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